RAINFALL
pH TEST REPORTS
Measurements taken by involved citizens across the country.
Posted by Clifford E Carnicom
September 2000

1990 Difference Statistics:
Number of Observations: 87
Average of Differences : 1.41
Sample Standard Deviation of Differences: 0.72
t Statistic: 18.3
Significance Level: 99.999%+

1999 Difference Statistics:
Number of Observations: 87
Average of Differences : 1.37
Sample Standard Deviation of Differences: 0.72
t Statistic: 17.7
Significance Level: 99.999%+

Wilcoxon's Signed Rank Non-Parametric Test also indicates the pH differences from 2000 with respect to 1999 data to be significant at the 99.9999%+ level. (n=24)

Significant differences from the baseline indicate significant changes in atmospheric chemistry that have occurred since the baseline values were recorded. Significant positive differences indicate a much higher presence of hydroxide ions (OH-) than is expected. Significant differences, as found, warrant a formal investigation into the magnitude and origin of recent changes in atmospheric chemistry.

Date (2000)

N

Location

1990
pH

1999
pH

2000
Measured pH

1990
Difference

1999
Difference

Jun 26

1

NM

5.1

5.0

6.6

1.5

1.6

Jun 27

 

NM

5.1

5.0

6.6

1.5

1.6

Aug 17

 

NM

5.1

5.0

6.2

1.1

1.2

Aug 18

 

NM

5.1

5.0

6.3

1.2

1.3

Aug 19

5

NM

5.1

5.0

6.6

1.5

1.6

Sep 10

 

WA

5.3

5.1

5.3

0.0

0.2

Sep 11

 

IN

4.4

4.4

7.0

2.6

2.6

Sep 11

 

Great Lakes

4.4

4.5

6.6

2.2

2.1

Sep 11

 

Great Lakes

4.4

4.5

7.6+

3.2

3.1

Sep 15

10

OR coast

5.3

5.4

5.6

0.3

0.2

Sept 15

 

Nor. CA-coast

5.3

5.3

5.0

-0.3

-0.3

Sep 17

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.0

1.6

1.5

Sep 15

 

ND

5.3

6.0

6.0

0.7

0.0

Sep 19

 

WI

4.7

4.7

6.8

2.1

2.1

Sep 19

15

WI

4.7

4.7

7.0

2.3

2.3

Sep 19

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.3

1.9

1.8

Sep 21

 

KS

5.3

5.1

6.8

1.5

1.7

Sep 21

 

WA

5.3

5.2

5.3

0.0

-0.1

Sep 19

 

CO

5.2

4.9

5.7

0.5

0.8

Sep 20

20

CO

5.2

4.9

6.0

0.8

1.1

Sep 20

 

CO

5.2

4.9

5.9

0.7

1.0

Sep 22

 

WI

4.7

4.7

6.4

1.7

1.7

Sep 22

 

WI

4.7

4.7

6.6

1.7

1.7

Sep 23

 

MI

4.3

4.5

6.2

1.9

1.7

Sep 25

25

CO

5.2

4.9

5.5

0.3

0.6

Sep 25

 

CO

5.2

4.9

5.9

0.7

1.0

Sep 26

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.3

1.9

1.8

Sep 27

 

TX

5.1

5.1

6.7

1.6

1.6

Oct 5

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Oct 6

30

IN

4.4

4.4

6.7

2.3

2.3

Oct 6

 

GA

4.6

4.6

5.2

0.6

0.6

Oct 9

 

OR coast

5.3

5.4

5.3

0.0

-0.1

Oct 10

 

CA

5.3

5.5

6.4

1.1

0.9

Oct 9

 

CA (N.)

5.3

5.4

6.4

1.1

1.0

Oct 10

35

CA (N.)

5.3

5.4

6.4

1.1

1.0

Oct 11

 

CA (N.)

5.3

5.4

6.4

1.1

1.0

Oct 13

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.6

1.8

1.8

Oct 16

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.1

1.7

1.6

Oct 18

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Oct 23

40

WI

4.8

4.8

6.8

2.0

2.0

Oct 23

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.6

1.8

1.8

Oct 22

 

CO

5.2

5.0

7.0

1.8

2.0

Oct 23

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.8

2.0

2.0

Oct 8

 

TX

5.1

5.1

6.5

1.4

1.4

Oct 15

45

TX

5.1

5.1

6.8

1.7

1.7

Oct 23

 

TX

5.1

5.1

7.0

1.9

1.9

Oct 25

 

CA

5.3

5.4

6.3

1.0

0.9

Oct 26

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.4

1.6

1.6

Oct 27

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.6

1.8

1.8

Oct 27

50

CA

5.3

5.5

6.2

1.9

1.7

Nov 1

 

ND

5.3

6.0

6.3

1.0

0.3

Nov 2

 

WI

4.8

4.8

7.0

2.2

2.2

Nov 5

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Nov 6

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.2

1.4

1.4

Nov 6

55

WI

4.8

4.8

6.4

1.6

1.6

Nov 7

 

IN

4.4

4.4

6.8

2.4

2.4

Nov 9

 

GA

4.6

4.6

5.7

1.1

1.1

Nov 14

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Nov 12

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.4

1.6

1.6

Nov 13

60

OR

5.3

5.4

4.9

-0.4

-0.5

Nov 14

 

OR

5.3

5.4

4.9

-0.4

-0.5

Nov 20

 

NC

4.5

4.7

6.0

1.5

1.3

Nov 20

 

NC

4.5

4.7

6.5

2.0

1.8

Nov 21

 

IL

4.5

4.5

6.0

1.5

1.5

Jan 16

65

MA

4.4

4.5

6.3

1.9

1.8

Jan 19

 

WA

5.3

5.2

5.5

0.2

0.3

Jan 20

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Jan 21

 

ID

5.3

5.2

6.3

0.9

1.0

Jan 21

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Jan 21

70

ID

5.3

5.2

6.0

0.7

0.8

Jan 23

 

CA

5.3

5.4

6.8

1.5

1.4

Jan 23

 

CA

5.3

5.4

6.2

0.9

0.8

Feb 06

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.1

1.7

1.6

Feb 09

 

OR

5.3

5.4

5.1

-0.2

-0.3

Feb 27

75

AR

4.7

4.8

5.9

1.2

1.1

Feb 25

 

AR

4.7

4.8

6.4

1.7

1.6

Feb 25

 

NC

4.5

4.9

6.4

1.9

1.5

Mar 08

 

OH

4.4

4.5

6.1

1.7

1.6

Mar 22

 

MA

4.4

4.5

6.2

1.8

1.7

Apr 20

80

WI

4.8

4.8

7.0

2.2

2.2

May 02

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.9

2.1

2.1

May 05

 

NM

5.1

5.1

6.0

0.9

0.9

May 06

 

ND

5.3

6.0

6.5

1.2

0.5

May 04

 

WI

4.8

4.8

7.0

2.2

2.2

May 07

85

WI

4.8

4.8

6.8

2.0

2.0

May 10

 

WI

4.8

4.8

6.8

2.0

2.0

May 16

 

ME

4.5

4.8

6.1

1.6

1.3

It is emphasized once again that:

"The single most important chemical species in clouds and
precipitation is the hydrogen ion (H+), whose concentration can be
indicated by specifying the solution's acidity, or pH value. You may
recall from high school chemistry that the pH scale ranges from 0 to
14, low pH values indicating high acidity (high concentrations of H+)
and high pH values indicating high alkalinity (low concentrations of H+)"

from Atmosphere, Climate, and Change by Graedel and Crutzen,
Scientific American, 1997.



Lines of equal pH in the United States 1990
from Atmosphere, Climate and Change by Graedel and Crutzen 1997
("The levels below 5.0 east of the Mississippi River are the result of
anthropogenic [man-made] emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides
.")

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