Clifford E Carnicom
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Jun 03 2004

Distance to Mountain Range : Approximately 15 miles
3 % of U.S. Population : Approximately 8 million people

A model has been developed to depict the estimated increase in the mortality rate as a function of the decrease in visibility. The results of this model in a graphical form are shown above. It can be observed that mortality increases as visibility decreases, and that the effect is highly significant. This model does not consider the additional negative health effects that occur from the toxic nature of particulate matter1.

Additional Notes:

The American Heart Associations establishes that an increase in the density of particulate matter will cause an increase in mortality. The expected increase is expressed in a differential form of an increase of 1% mortality of an increase of 10ug (micrograms) per cubic meter.2 Additional sources3 refer to an increase of 3.4% mortality increase per equivalent density change, however the more conservative approach will be adopted within this model.



1. Clifford E Carnicom, Barium Tests are Positive, (, May 24, 2004.
2. American Heart Association, Air Pollution, Heart Disease and Stroke, (, Jun 1 2004.1. Clifford E Carnicom, Mortality Requires Examination, (, Mar 22, 2004.
3. Laden F, Neas LM, Dockery DW, Schwartz J., Association of Fine Particulate Matter from Different Sources with Daily Mortality in Six U.S. Cities, (Environmental Health Perspective), 2000 Oct; 108 (10), 941-7. Abstract available from U.S. National Institute of Health.
4. Carnicom, Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny, (, Aug 27, 2001.
5. Carnicom, Microscopic Particle Count Study, New Mexico 1996-1999, (, Mar 23, 2000.
6. Carnicom, The Theft of Sunlight, (, Oct 25, 2003.
7. Carnicom, Visibility Standards Changed, (, Apr 01, 2001.
8. Carnicom, The Extinction of the Stars, (, Jun 23, 2003.
9. American Lung Association, Particulate Matter, (, Apr 2000.

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